Disability as Punishment in Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency

This post contains spoilers for Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency.

I recently finished watching Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency on Netflix. It’s a show based on books by Douglas Adams (who also wrote The Hitch Hiker’s Guide to the Galaxy). The premise of the show really defies coherent summary. You have to watch all eight of the episodes to actually figure out what is going on. Which is in no small way, part of the appeal. I won’t try to explain the plot and this post really won’t spoil much of the plot. I am instead going to focus on how disability fits into the story and character development of two of the show’s characters.

The show largely follows Todd Brotzman who is mostly unwillingly swept up into the drama of the show. Todd is an underemployed (and eventually unemployed) loser. Despite this, he is the primary financial caregiver of his sister, Amanda who has a condition called Pararibulitis. This fictional disorder results in Amanda having vivid hallucinations of being in extreme pain. She hallucinates both a drowning and being on fire. The medications for Pararibulitis are expensive and Todd is Amanda’s only source of financial support as the disease has left her unable to work and primarily confined to her home. It is revealed early on that Todd is financially responsible for Amanda because their parents spent all their money on Pararibulitis (which runs in their family) treatments for Todd.

It is later revealed that an unscrupulous Todd has lied about having the condition to extort money from his parents. He supports his sister out of guilt because their parents’ money had run out by the time she manifested the disease and really needed the treatments.

Throughout the show, Todd goes through a lot of personal growth which includes coming clean about his lies and confronting his other less than legal behaviour (including theft from friends and his landlord).

It seems that by the end of the current season Todd is on his way to redemption by taking responsibility for his past. That is until the very end of the last episode which shows Todd talking on the phone with Amanda (who is still coming to terms with his betrayal), suddenly he drops the phone as he experiences a hallucination of his phone burning a hole through his hand. The last shot is of him writhing on the floor in pain.

Much of the show’s plot revolves around the idea of interconnectedness. The show’s titular character Dirk Gently is a pseudopsychic entity who succeeds mainly through happenstance. Things are predestined. Everything basically happens for a reason.

So, when Todd presumably manifests Pararibulitis at the end of the season, it is clearly meant to.

As soon as it became apparent that Todd had manifested Pararibulitis, I was frustrated at the use of disability as punishment. A punishment that was confirmed as the song First Things First by Neon Trees played in the background. The opening lyrics to which are,

You are never gonna get
Everything you want in this world
First things first
Get what you deserve

The disability as being somehow deserved trope is particularly disgusting because it is so prevalent outside of fiction.

The idea that disability is the result of sin is ancient and continues to be prevalent. Whether it be seen as a direct punishment for an individuals actions or a more generalized reminder of the sins of humanity.

Consider the stigma around HIV & AIDs. A lot of it stems from homophobia and the idea that people who contract the disease deserve it for their perceived sexual indiscretions.

Disability as just punishment is an idea so pervasive, that when it happens to people who have done genuine harm, it is framed as righteous. Consider Ava Duvernay’s Martin Luther King Jr. biopic Selma. At the end of the film while While King gives his speech at the Alabama Capitol, the camera revisits key historical figures in the film as an epilogue.

Amongst stories of activists who were finally able to register to vote or who eventually went on to win places in public office, they include an update on Alabama’s Governor. A man who fought hard against civil rights. This is what they shared.


Image description: A screenshot from the film Selma showing Alabama governor George Wallace (portrayed by actor Tim Roth). To his right is text that reads “George Wallace: Ran for President unsuccessfully four times. He was left paralyzed by an assassination attempt in 1972”

The choice to include disability along with his failure to move his political career forward after the events of Selma is clearly meant to show that he got his deserved comeuppance for his racist policies.

While Wallace was absolutely on the wrong side of history and did immeasurable harm with his racist policies and legislation, it is inappropriate to suggest that he deserved disability. Not because he didn’t deserve to be held accountable for his actions but because if we accept that disability is a just punishment then we must accept that disability is universally a negative experience.

Not only does the suggestion that Wallace got what he deserved reinforce the idea that disability is a punishment but it reinforces the idea that disability is and should be a negative experience.

As disabled people fight through deeply held cultural misconceptions about disability, it is harmful to have it suggested in either lighthearted comedies (Dirk Gently) or in reference to real people (Wallace) that those who do harm should suffer and that suffering should look like us.

Believing disability to be a punishment allows people to justify not supporting necessary services and accessibility.

Media needs to do better, even when it’s as surreal and unrealistic as Dik Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency because making it acceptable to say “What goes around comes around” in terms of disability is far from fictional. It’s probable the most realistic thing in that show and that’s a problem.

10 thoughts on “Disability as Punishment in Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency

  1. The media is a reflection of the society it serves. As long as either being born disabled or becoming disabled is seen as “the worst thing to happen to someone” it will continue to be seen in negative terms not as something that just is.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I disagree with your conclusion that Todd’s Pararibulitis is the punishment he gets at the end of the season for lying. Rather, it is his total inability to help Amanda.

    Think about it. Throughout the entire season, his sole motivation has been to try and help his younger sister as she is struggling with the disease. But his biggest failure in the show is really not being able to help her one bit. He could barely help her cope with the disease at the beginning of the season because he had never had it. At the end of the season she leaves him because 1) he lied to her, so she doesn’t want his emotional company, and 2) because he is completely unable to help her deal with her symptoms, and the Rowdy 3 are.

    Then at the very end, right before the attack, he gets a call from Amanda who is scared and asking Todd for help. This seems like Todd’s third chance at being able to do something positive for Amanda, but instead, he contracts Pararibulitis and fails again in that regard. Todd’s punishment is that, like Amanda says, sometimes you don’t fix things. The remorse for not being able to help Amanda again and again is his true punishment for his actions.

    Liked by 2 people

  3. As a fam of this genre and Douglas Adams, I think the author is reading too much into the disease manifestation. It shows up when it does more because of irony than as punishment. Because it was the only way for Todd to be more screwed, because that opens up a whole new channel of interconnectedness, because the timing couldn’t be worse. Because now The Rowdy Three, and Amanda by extension, won’t ride off into the sunset, and have plot reasons to stick around. Disease as punishment isn’t BBCs style – that’s more American made.


  4. nobody in their right mind thinks that disability as punishment is a real thing. disability is genetic, or the product of an accident, or, you know, something that isn’t some kind of divine retribution or punishment or something. it’s a plot device. dramatic irony. please, for the love of god, chill.


    1. Episode 1 of season 2 Todd says he deserves his pararibulitis
      Episode 2 His pararibulitis is specifically referred to as a punishment from the universe.

      Gaslight in my comments section again and you will be blocked.


  5. I really don’t think that’s how it’s supposed to be interpreted for multiple reasons but primarily because I think it’s supposed to mirror various characters being taken by black wing, with the implication that the momentary happy ending has completely fallen apart, it’s meant to set up the second season more than anything. I’m aware they had other methods to isolate him but the disease is dramatic irony in that is puts him in the same position he left Amanda after confessing he lied, the disease itself isn’t the ‘punishment’, more that he is now alone and in pain with an emphasis on the alone.


    1. That is to say, Farah is with him but doesn’t understand what he’s going through just like Todd was with Amanda but didn’t genuinely understand her. It’s the isolation the disease causes and not the disease itself that is relevant.


      1. You are ignoring the entire ethos of the show. these choices aren’t just for plot convenience.

        The whole series is about the interconnectedness of all things and how everything happens for a reason.

        This was confirmed in season 2

        Where they made it worse by throwing in as many toxic disability stereotypes as possible.

        But my initial analysis is entirely in line with the show and its contents.

        You on the other hand seem to have willfully ignored all of that in order to even suggest that these things which have been explicitly defined in the show itself as maningful are in fact just meaningless story telling tropes.


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