According to Bruce Pardy, I Shouldn’t be a PhD Student

In the years that I have spent in graduate school, I have not once been subjected to a timed test. All of the work in my program of study is based on either written work or oral presentations. While this isn’t the universal experience of graduate school, it isn’t wholly unique either. Yet, according to a recent piece in the National Post, I probably shouldn’t be a PhD student.

Bruce Pardy, a professor of law at Queen’s University wrote a piece in the National Post which was based on an academic article he had written in the Education and Law Journal (which thanks to my student status I have access to and was able to read). In both, Pardy makes the argument that students with mental and learning disabilities should not be given additional time to write exams.

His argument relies heavily on athletic metaphors and a semantic deconstruction of the word discrimination. In his National Post piece he begins,

Last week at the World Track and Field Championships, Usain Bolt ran his final race. Andre De Grasse, the Canadian sprint star, missed his last chance to beat Bolt because of a hamstring tear. If, instead of pulling out of the race, De Grasse had claimed accommodation for his injury and demanded a 20-metre head start, no one would have taken the request seriously.

He continues later with his definition of discrimination,

To “discriminate” means to distinguish or tell apart. While the law prohibits certain specific instances of discrimination, telling people apart is not illegal but an essential tool for functioning in the world. People discriminate constantly. They choose to be friends with some people and not others. Employers hire better qualified candidates rather than those less qualified. Distinguishing between people even on prohibited grounds is proper if done for a bona fide purpose.

While it is true that discriminate can simply mean to tell apart. His semantic parsing of the word is used to set the reader up for the idea that people with learning disabilities are simply either genuinely inferior students or students who don’t really have an inherent disadvantage at all. It also serves to create a barrier against rebuttals which would call out his opinions for potentially being the potentially illegal, prejudicial kind of discrimination.

He argues that extra time inherently gives students with learning disabilities an advantage based on what he perceives to be the primary intentions of timed testing, “how well they can think, learn, analyze, remember, communicate, plan, prepare, organize, focus and perform under pressure” (quote from the National Post piece). He assumes that additional time for students with learning disabilities fundamentally undermines these things. In his lengthier academic piece, he claims that arguments supporting the idea that additional time level the playing field for students with learning disabilities are false. His argument is entirely premised on the idea that the skills ostensibly being graded are skills that students with learning disabilities simply fundamentally lack and can be faked by the addition of more time. In both the National Post and journal article he references Alicia Raimundo, a mental health advocate who explains that additional time for students with learning disabilities could potentially mean the difference between a C grade and an A grade.

He disingenuously claims in the National Post “Given enough time, many students could put together a paper that would earn a 90”. The thing is that he presumably knows better or at least has been presented with information that contradicts this assumption. His entire argument is based on the idea that given enough time everyone would do better (thought to be clear students with added time accommodations are still subject to time limits). Yet, in his academic piece he actually references a paper that actively contradicts this assumption. He cites Suzanne E. Rowe’s 2009 article in Legal Writing which makes the complete opposite argument. Not only does Rowe support students with learning disabilities being given additional time on exams, she proves why it’s effective and why it doesn’t disadvantage nondisabled students.

Pardy claimed that many students could achieve a grade of ninety given sufficient time, however, Rowe cites a number of studies which showed that this is not the case. That while students with learning disabilities tended to score better after having been given additional time, students without disabilities had no or only minimal benefit from being given more time.

Despite citing Rowe’s article, himself, Pardy does not engage with any of those findings or acknowledge that they exist. Instead preferring to base his argument against additional time on the insinuation that students with learning disabilities simply do not have the skills to succeed. His evidence? That they perform less well on timed exams when held to the same time constraints as their nondisabled peers. He does not accept the idea that students with learning disabilities are going into such exams with an inherent disadvantage and that the process is already tilted against them and that the addition of time for these students levels the playing field. He is however, unable to explain how students who apparently possess weaker analytical skills, weaker skills in preparation for testing, weaker skills in time management, and weaker focus etc. somehow magically gain those skills when given extra time to write the exam.

Rowe is very clear in stating that those students already have those skills and that during studies on the benefits of additional time, those students who were weaker in preparation and analytical skills still tended to do poorly regardless of being given additional time. Ultimately, at the end of the exam, students are still exhibiting those skills regardless of whether they have been given additional time or not.

In the footnotes of his academic piece Pardy notes that on occasion he receives exams from students who have been given extended time about which he observes “[s]ometimes the answers in those exams are significantly longer than any of the others.”

I have invigilated and graded my share of timed exams for both standard timing and those with accommodations. Even in the confines of the standard exam, there will be students who write significantly more than their peers. This does not necessarily translate into better work or a higher grade. In terms of exams that included accommodations including addition of time, they were not all stellar and I have failed students who wrote extended exams because the content of their exam did not merit a passing grade. Pardy does not expand on whether the longer exam was in fact a better exam. The insinuation seems to be that because the student was able to write more content that they somehow did not require the accommodation or that this somehow proves an unfair advantage when it is in fact just an anecdote which lacks context.

He is in effect dog whistling the idea that students with learning disabilities may not deserve their accommodations and may not have learning disabilities at all. He laments the fact that in some Ontario universities (mine included), students with mental disabilities are not required to disclose their diagnosis. They simply require a letter from their doctor outlining the fact that they have medical needs and that those needs require specific accommodations which the doctor then outlines.

He implies that students may be lying about their conditions when he says “Typically, only a medical note is required to get accommodation, even though many clinicians rely on self-reported symptoms to measure impairment.” In his journal article, he is frustrated by the limited power that he and universities have to interrogate the validity of accommodation requests. As though, the university’s nonmedical staff might know more about the reality of a particular diagnosis then does an actual doctor.

His prejudice against people with learning and mental disabilities is clear in his continued support for the accommodations of students with physical and sensory disabilities. Some of whom he seems blissfully unaware might also benefit from additional time as a result of their disabilities.

In the National Post he argues, “Other kinds of disabilities can be accommodated because they are not what the exam is testing. Blind students, for example, may need to access exam questions with a text reader.” Those same students may also require the use of a computer and dictation software to answer those questions. They might also require text-to-speech software to listen to what they have written in order to ascertain that there are no errors in dictation. This is a time-consuming process. Dictation software is notoriously finicky (I would know I am writing this piece using dictation software right now). Failure to properly proofread and edit text written with dictation software might result in submitting something that has sections which are entirely incomprehensible (or in the case of this article, that Bruce Pardy be routinely refered to as Bruce party). Does the validity of the accommodation end as soon as it might require added time? Or is it a legitimate accommodation?

Fundamentally, Pardy premises his argument on the idea that allowing additional time for students with learning disabilities is unfair to students not given additional time. While I have already addressed why this is a weak argument and that students are not actively disadvantaged by having their disabled peers be given additional time, in his journal article Pardy persists, “[s]tudents have a direct and personal interest in the conditions and criteria imposed upon the other members of their class. They have a stake in the fairness of the competition.”

This argument boils down to the idea that students with learning disabilities should not be given additional time because their classmates would think it was unfair. Basically, privileging the prejudicial opinions of classmates over the rights of disabled students.

This is likely why Pardy focused on the false argument that everyone or at least many people might benefit from being given this accommodation. It makes the output seem unfairly weighted in favour of disabled students.

Not only is there no evidence that this is true in the case of granting additional time, it is not true of some other other accommodations where nondisabled students might feel disadvantaged. As an undergraduate I benefited from not only additional time during exams but also having a notetaker. The former accommodation was relatively easily hidden from my classmates as I wrote exams separately. Having a notetaker was not so invisible and I was occasionally confronted by resentful classmates who suggested that I should not be in university or claimed the same argument as Pardy that “everyone would benefit from that”. Again, this is untrue. It has been suggested that students who take their own notes, particularly if they are hand written tend to retain information better. Having a notetaker simply allowed me to have access to notes that I would otherwise not be able to take myself. I was actually still at a disadvantage because I could not access the added benefits of taking my own notes. The injustice was entirely in the perception of different treatment not actually in the outcome of my academic achievement.

Pardy repeatedly claims that allowing students with learning disabilities to have additional time on exams is somehow comparable to allowing an athlete to run a shorter race than their competitors. This is however a false equivalency, it is entirely dependent on the assumption that students with learning disabilities were already on a level playing field with their nondisabled peers and that the accommodation gave them an advantage when in reality the accommodation seeks to erase an inherent disadvantage. Either, that or it assumes that the disabled students should not be taking the exam at all. This seems the more likely of the two as he utilizes the story of De Grasse, an athlete who sat out of a race because of an injury. The implication is clear, if you are unable to perform within the constraints set by the professor, then don’t show up. Pardy would likely dispute this as being his intention but it is a logical conclusion based on his sports analogies. It has to be assumed that students with learning disabilities are either the athlete who was right to sit out or be an athlete with an unfair head start. There is no room in Pardy’s argument for the reality of academic disadvantage that can be controlled for through the reasonable accommodation of extra time.

So, convinced is he, that students with learning disabilities have no inherent disadvantage that in his academic piece he takes the comparison to even more absurd lengths,

If a professor granted extra time on the exam to Caucasian students, the others would obviously have a complaint under the Code. If she gave extra time to five students who did renovations on her house, the rest of the class could well seek administrative law remedies.

He equates racism and potential bribery with an academic accommodation for disability. The only reasonable explanation as to why he feels this a fair analogy is if he discounts the reality and validity of learning disabilities.

He also seeks to limit how people can disagree with him. Through his parsing of the word discriminate. He seeks to suggest that people who would call his opinions discriminatory (in the sense of social disadvantage) are over reacting. He seeks to rob people of the language to express how problematic his opinions are by setting up a scenario where that word no longer means what it is culturally understood to mean and what it usually means specifically in circumstances like this one. He wants people to believe that it isn’t an inappropriate kind of discrimination to openly imply that students with learning disabilities are either measurably inferior or simply fakers seeking an unfair advantage. An advantage that research shows doesn’t even exist. In the unlikely event that a student hoodwinked a doctor into an inaccurate diagnosis and gained extra time. The research clearly suggests that they would not benefit. They would simply be stigmatizing themself.

And if Pardy has done nothing else, it is show what sort of prejudice exists against people with learning disabilities in academia. He also shows just how comfortable some people are in utilizing that prejudice to justify discrimination.

Under Pardy’s argument, I should not have reached the level of graduate student. Much of my undergraduate academic success is as a result of academic accommodation. Interestingly enough, I only sought academic accommodations which did include additional time on exams after the urging of one of my professors who saw how much I was struggling and realized that I could and deserved to do better.

Professors like Bruce Pardy rely on the public acceptance of misinformation. And he is misinforming them. He has read Suzanne Rowe’s work which contradicts the very foundations of his arguments and yet he not only fails entirely to substantially contradict it but ignores the existence of this conflicting information altogether. It is based in prejudice and is only sustained through the widespread acceptance of that prejudice. His argument is based on the acceptance of statements that he has not proven and are maintained through an attempt to sow the seeds of doubt around the validity of learning disabilities and the real needs of people who have them. Not through evidence but through implication.

According to Bruce Pardy, I have potentially illegitimately taken one of a limited number graduate spots from a more deserving (read: nondisabled) student. That I might lack the critical thinking skills to truly deserve to be a PhD student. But then again, I didn’t write and publish an article in a journal defending prejudicial treatment against students with learning disabilities that included a reference to an article that completely contradicted my argument and then pretend that I had not been exposed to those ideas.



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13 thoughts on “According to Bruce Pardy, I Shouldn’t be a PhD Student

  1. Thank you. I did not have the heart to deconstruct this bigoted essay. Sadly, based on my experience as an academic I think his views are shared by the majority of scholars that teach in Canada and the USA. More than a few times my peers have told me the campus is “over run with students who have a supposed learning disability and I resent giving them extra time”. To this I reply, all those pesky ramps were fought for because my presence was deemed objectionable years ago.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Ugh, I hate this. I have a physical disability but I can remember as far back as elementary school that other students would think I got extra benefits and special treatment because I dictated my test answers to my school aide and sometimes had extra time to do work. Guess what. Those things didn’t make me an A student. I was an A student because I am smart and I’ve always been smart. I also worked hard. The extra time just let me show what I’m capable of doing.

    But there’s something else I never admitted, something I didn’t have to admit because my physical disability was enough to get accommodations. I don’t do well on timed exams for mental reasons as well. I have an anxiety disorder and panic easily in certain situations. Perhaps it’s because I’m afraid my body won’t let me show what my mind is capable of, or perhaps timed tests themselves cause my stress. I don’t know, and I never had to find out, because my visible disability was accepted in this situation. I think it’s completely unfair that non-visible disabilities are taken as less valid.

    Here’s the thing: in real life, many jobs — most jobs even — don’t have such tight time requirements. Sure, there are deadlines, but they are long enough that you can still make them even if it takes you a bit longer to do things. And if not, there are ways to get accommodations and still do the job as well as anybody else. Perhaps there are a few jobs I can’t do because I can’t do certain things quickly, but they usually involve physical labor. The more education you have, the fewer times you encounter such requirements.

    Personally, I think it’s time we end fast-timed exams in education. I had very few of them in college and only one in graduate school. Instead, we had take-home exams that the professor estimated would take a few hours to complete, and we got four + days to complete them. We had final projects and papers with deadlines announced at the beginning of the semester. And guess what. We learned and got our degrees… at Stanford University. I rarely had to ask for accommodations because the classes were structured to allow students the time they needed to complete the work and not be singled out based on a disability. That’s how it should be whenever possible!

    Liked by 2 people

    1. You went to Stanford? So did I, but I got myself suspended for poor grades after my combo of autism, chronic anxiety and depression, and multiple sclerosis proved to be too much for even for the accommodations I managed to get. Were you in a STEM field? My major is Computer Science, and most of my classes did have timed exams that I couldn’t always get extra time or a separate room for, since the OAE deleted stuff I was previously allowed from my accommodation letter (which I was able to get added back in later after chasing after doctors for weeks to get another letter, but too late for certain exams). And even when I did have extra time, I sometimes had brain fog so bad I could barely remember my own name, let alone the material we were being tested on. Also, in my CS classes, there was often a policy of allowing 2 or fewer late days per assignment before the hard deadline, even if you have accommodations.

      Even though the technology existed for the OAE to forward my accommodation letters to professors, I was still told I had to deliver them myself despite my documented anxiety. The anxiety around talking to professors was made worse after I submitted my letter on time, the professor lost it, and then blamed me for not sending it in on time and refused to accommodate me for that exam. I have a lot of difficulty asking people for help because of my anxiety and executive dysfunction, and difficulty advocating for myself in general. The OAE won’t check up on even documented disabled students, so I was expected to be able to advocate for myself and take care of myself. I was once told I had a limited number of chances (i.e. bad quarters) to learn to “manage my illness” before I would be suspended, and this turned out to be true.

      Oh! And once I applied for housing through the disability draw, requesting a room either on the first floor or with elevator access because I’ve had trouble with weakness in my legs in the past, and I was given a room in the basement of Roble, the part that has no elevator access. The housing dept. had it in their files as being elevator accessible because the other half of the basement (which you can only get to by going upstairs, down the hall, and downstairs again) is accessible by elevator. I could have asked for another room, but was too exhausted after moving in to go through the process of moving again. Moving had already been so physically stressful that I “lost” a few minutes while dragging boxes into my room. One second I was at the stairs and the next I was in my room with all the boxes. No one helped me move in. Also, when I finally got kicked out, there was no help from the administration for me to move out either. I had to get help from other students. At least I was allowed to check out a cart for my boxes from the housing front desk.

      I could have taken time off from Stanford for my health, but if I did I would have lost easy access to a nearby hospital, my friends/support system, and would have been isolated in my rural hometown where there are few jobs, no friends, and no public transportation (I can’t drive). This is indeed what has happened to me after I was suspended, though I’ve gotten used to it. I haven’t been able to find a job though. Even if I do find a job I can do, I likely won’t be able to get to it. Three people in my household work and we only have two cars.

      When I was at Stanford, I was on full need-based financial aid, but even though I was allowed reduced units, this financial aid was reduced each year after the four years students are expected to graduate in until I ended up in debt and now, even after my suspension is over, I can’t go back until I earn enough money to not have to take out private loans… and I can’t find a job. I’m 25 and I’ve never been employed. I was valedictorian of my rural high school. People had high hopes for me. I feel like a failure, and I still have nightmares about being kicked out of Stanford.

      I’m not the only one who’s experienced things like this. I have a lot of friends who have gone through hell as well.

      Oh! And Stanford supports Autism $peaks as well, despite the protests of actually autistic students like me. They “light it up blue”, but will only provide the accommodations required by law to its autistic students.


  3. I really have been appreciating reading your blog lately. And especially these last two paragraphs there is such strong discrimination language. Many simply can’t recognize that the world is set up to advantage one type of person (White, able bodied, “Christian”, men) and we must constantly be working together to level the playing field for everyone else. Thank you for your words.

    Liked by 2 people

  4. I dropped out of HS due to an LD and I still have nightmares of being in school and it hurts that I was denied accommodation and could never reach my full potential. I wanted into the program that gives accommodations which in my province is called IPP but even though I had a diagnosed LD they would not let me even apply. I think what they did was discriminatory but I only had a yr to report it to the human rights commission and I waited too long because I was very sick with CFS during that time.

    People will say that I am allowing myself to be victimized and making up excuses for why I have not furthered my education since then but I wanted to kill myself every day and I cannot imagine walking in a school again. I am so traumatized trying to go through the Canadian public school system with NVLD and all the ignorance I faced.

    I hope one day I can get an education and a job but it all feels impossible and out of my hands. A lot of the times I want to kill myself when people ask what I’m doing with my life, if I have a job or school but I don’t have either and I look visibly able bodied so they don’t believe I am disabled. I have NVLD, CFS/SEID, OCD and possibly hypersomnia, anxiety and spd.



    Liked by 1 person

  5. His comments are racist, sexist and homophobic. It is time for him to retire because it is impossible for him to get off his high horse.
    His class examples were always based on reasonable white male characters. His views are very much in line with racist attitudes at his institution. Students have to tolerate his racism and sexism but he can’t accommodate legit medical conditions that mainly affect visible minorities?


  6. I’m very much enjoying this content. As a fellow intellectual with CP, reading your blog (and seeing all of the great responses to your work) helps contribute to the growing sense of community I feel as I immerse myself more and more into issues of disability.

    As part of my education in the states, I had accommodations of this sort available to me. I didn’t take them. This was a result of self loathing, my own ableism, and a now-obviously narrow and oppressive rhetorical vision of what disability is, and how it ought to interact with ones sense of identity.

    In the environment where I didn’t take extra time that was offered me, I failed English classes — not because I had a poor command of the language as Perdy suggests, but because language like his had me convinced that I could not succeed.

    I recently graduated with my BA in Philosophy (where I focused mainly on bioethics, the metaphysics of personhood and the philosophy of disability) and I intend to pursue my masters in Rhetoric, focusing more specifically on topics where disability and the language around sexuality intersect.

    Thank you for doing this work. It’s been difficult for me to quiet that whirlwind of nonsense — that part of me that bought into what people like this say, but what you’re doing here matters. The more we bring one another into the wider conversation; the more there’s possibility, the more there’s hope.

    I’m very grateful. I Can’t wait to see what you tackle next!



  7. I’m baffled that more schools haven’t figured out how to assign note-takers discretely so as to protect the person receiving the accommodation. My university wasn’t great at a lot of things, but the note-taking accommodation seemed pretty well-designed. (I served as a note-taker for a few classes.) Students from the same class and section as the student receiving the accommodation were recruited as note-takers, submitted our notes through the disability services office, it was never revealed to the rest of the class who we were taking notes for, and we were paid a small stipend. Other students might’ve had an opinion about it, but they weren’t given the ability to confront or harass someone else about their note-taking accommodation.


  8. Why not just extend extra time to all students? Since it doesn’t benefit the A+ students anyway, they can twiddle their thumbs for the last few hours. Meanwhile the disabled all get a fair shot, including those who are too traumatized by the prospect of stigma to acknowledge their own disability.

    For more robust equity, why not just have students vote on how long their exam should be? Longest time wins, and everyone gets it.

    Even better: why not have students decide what the questions they’re asked are to be? Better yet, why not just give a degree to everyone who pays the admission fee? (Except those who don’t want to pay; they can have it for free.)

    If you reject this reductio ad absurdum, then you are sympathetic to the idea that *some* rules should be maintained. But if you hold that they shouldn’t all apply to you, then you are arguing for a relative advantage for yourself. In terms of the game itself, that advantage is by definition illegitimate. Just as starting with double the money in Monopoly is illegitimate.

    The athletics metaphor is powerful, and your attempt to show that it’s a false equivalency, mildly frustrated by comma splices as it is, goes nowhere. The field is level when it’s level, and that’s that. If we’re not looking at the same field, we’re not talking about the same race.

    Clearly, you want rules, but with some exceptions that benefit you and not others. What makes this horrible to behold is your attempt to pretend that you aren’t asking for exactly that.

    It’s practically the definition of the 2-year-old: testing rules, being stymied by them, and screaming incoherently at the nearest authority figure. By the time they reach school age, most kids have learned that they are only welcome to join in games if they abide by the games’ (yes, arbitrary) rules. The rest? Nobody likes them.

    Games, university, and life itself are not altogether dissimilar.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hmm, well actually, I was in a class where we wrote a large chunk of the final ourselves, and the teacher gave us a time span he thought was reasonable. That resulted in a ten question (all mostly essay) that the teacher gave us (I think) eight hours to complete. Granted, it was a class intended for special education majors about test design. I got time and a half due to my accommodations so I got 12 hours. I think it took me either three or five hours to complete the final when other people finished in an hour and a half to two hours (from what I heard from people I knew; the class didn’t meet in person after the class two weeks before the final).

      Academic accommodations are a little like ramps and elevators. The people who can take the stairs don’t tend to experience an appreciable difference in being able to get where they’re going, but people who need the accessibility the elevator or ramp provides see a marked difference. Your logic implies that since *you* have no problem with the stairs, people who do are just whiny and want an advantage you don’t get, when they just want to arrive at the same destination without basically doing the Capitol Crawl to get there.


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